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Borelian Verbs: Infixes

Grammar 1, Infixes for Passivity

Today's short lesson will be on the passive infix.  Verbs are typically either active or passive.

Active: I hit the ball.
Passive: The ball was hit by me.

The passive voice is more prevalent than one might expect in Borelian society as it adds yet another layer to an already complex language. While the infix remains the same, its position changes depending on the class of verb.

The infix is simply “n.” Its placement is as follows:

For Class I verbs, it comes before the verb after all other prefixes.

A + “n-” = “na” (be dying)

E + “n-” = “ne” (be seeing)

For Class II verbs, it comes immediately after the verb, before all suffixes.

Ra + “n-” = “ran” (be killing)

Zi + “n-” = “zin” (be winning)

For Class III verbs, it inserts itself before the last letter, taking on the form “ni-” as necessary to avoid lenition.

Mod + “n-” = “mond” (be giving)

Driw + “n-” = “driniw” (be hiking)

For Class IV and Class V verbs, it comes between the first and second syllable, taking on the form “ni-” as necessary to avoid lenition.

Zevith + “n-” = “zenvith” (be falling)

Izoth + “n-” = “inzoth” (be finding)

Skitoa + “n-” = “skinitoa” (be attacking)

For Class VI verbs (honor verbs), the longer form, “-(i)niz(i)” is used and is placed either after the first consonant, if consonant-initial, or attached directly to a vowel-initial verb.

Mod + “inizi” = “minizod” (be giving)

For Class VII verbs (bone verbs), the longer form is also used, but it is placed either before the last consonant, if consonant-final, or attached directly to the end of a vowel-final verb.

Rakzel + “inizi” = “rakzenizil” (be committing suicide)

Pronoun usage changes depending on whether a verb is active or passive, but we will not cover that until active pronouns have been addressed (likely next month).

Vocabulary

Adonn. nut, seed
A straightforward noun

Ancaadj./pron. that (promixal), v. mix, v. leave, depart
Borelian distinguishes this/that with proximal, middle, and distal forms.

Proximal refers to anything that can be seen and is close to hand, or in an immediate situational sense (This is a great day [that we are having today]. That animal [referring to something nearby] is not a dog, I don't care what you say.)

Middle refers to anything that is physical or non-physical, may be seen, but is not readily accessible. It may also refer to a recent event (This has been a great day [that we had and is ending]. That [referring to some thing or event in the general vicinity] was exactly what I was expecting.)

Distal refers to anything that cannot be seen or readily accessed, or for past events. (This [referring to perhaps a piece of memorabilia] was our last vacation together. That [time back then] was a great day.)

All this/that forms may be used regularly as pronouns or adjectives.

Verb “mix” is regular

Verb “leave, depart” is regular

Anka – v. fire, shoot (a weapon)
A straightforward verb, though in the heat of battle, the imperative is often stripped down to the verb root (perhaps for obvious reasons)

Ancakn. mixture, palette
A straightforward noun

Arazithv. retreat
A straightforward verb, from aran and zith. While zith may mean to run away from anything, arazith refers to a specific military maneuver. There is no associated noun because Borelians do not believe retreat to be a permanent fixture, but rather a state of being that will turn into another maneuver or tactic, or else victory or defeat.

Asriv. attack (from above)
A straightforward verb

Asrikn. attack (from above)
A straightforward noun

Avuran. skull, a type of bone talisman for wisdom and knowledge
A straightforward noun

Belojikn. orbit
A straightforward noun

Borv. attack (from below)
A straightforward verb

Borosn. attack (from below)
A straightforward noun

Dalviv. attack (from the side)
A straightforward verb, often paired with tedruz or clav

Dalvikn. attack (from the side)
A straightforward noun, often paired with tedruz or clav

Dubaraxoln. guerrilla warfare
A straightforward noun

Elevizadj. patient
A straightforward adjective

Esvidv. attack (from behind)
A straightforward verb

Esvikn. attack (from behind)
A straightforward noun

Iclobelv. orbit
A straightforward verb

Itjiv. begin, originate
A straightforward verb

Itjikn. origin
A straightforward noun

Jebao-Teranprop. Terran
An inhabitant of Earth

Jebao-Verennprop. Vereni
An inhabitant of Veren

Jitji-Teran. human
A straightforward noun referring to any human living anywhere, encompassing Earth and all its colony planets

Jekoridn. thief, criminal
A straightforward noun, can be used to refer to a thief specifically or a criminal in a broader sense

Ke/Ket/Kenan explanation
There are two honorifics used in Borelian. Ke (ket before a vowel) is used before someone's name in a direct address (as seen in In the Hands of the Enemy). Ken is a more indirect honorific, when direct address is unavailable or even inappropriate. It may be translated as sir, ma'am, or Mr./Ms./Mrs. before a name if not in direct address.

In battle, if a commander is giving a order, the subordinate may reply “Tjek ken.” They are not having a conversation, so direct address would be inappropriate, but it is an acceptable honorific to use with one's senior. Similarly, in the middle of battle “Tjek ken” would be an acknowledgment of a command given.

Despite being called an honorific, all three forms are appropriate across all social classes except slaves. A slave must use the honorifics toward a Borelian, but a Borelian is not obligated to return the favor.

Kodn. wall
A straightforward noun

Kordiv. steal, thieve
A straightforward verb

Kordikn. theft, crime
A straightforward noun, can be used to refer to theft specifically or crime in a broader sense

Kornn. hair
A straightforward noun

Leviv. wait, rise
A straightforward verb. The rise sense typically refers to something physically rising, such as the sun, the moon, someone standing, rising tide, etc. For things that get greater, such as more forceful wind, a worsening fever, etc., use rul (increase).

Levikn. wait
A straightforward noun

Lintv. focus, aim
A straightforward verb

Matjiv. create, make
A straightforward verb

Matjikn. thing
A straightforward noun, refers to a thing that is built or made. Can be a point of contention over whether the universe was created

Mitenn. tunnel
A straightforward noun

Mitoa – v. dig, burrow
A straightforward verb

Mitokn. hole, cave
A straightforward noun. You can also say “mitok dikre” to specify a hole in the ground (or any floor surface) or “mitok kod” to specify a cave (or any hole in a wall surface).

Molconj. or
A straightforward conjunction

Obidov. 1. sacrifice, make an offering 2. make oneself right, purify oneself

  1. An honor verb, fairly straightforward in its usage, reserved for worship practices of Tujor

  2. Also an honor verb referring to religious purification, although there have been occasions when it has been used as a regular verb with a slang meaning of “Pull yourself together!” or “Snap out of it!” or similar

Obidosn. sacrifice, offering
A straightforward noun

Oviv. magnify
A straightforward verb, often used idiomatically as exaggerate

Ovikn. magnifier
A straightforward noun, typically used as the basis for many related compound nouns

Ovik zenezn. telescope (lit. magnifier of the horizon)
A straightforward noun, probably used to have vib at the end but colloquial use shortened it

Ovikjan magnifying glass
A straightforward noun, typically referring to any compact, handheld magnifier

Ritjv. build, construct
A straightforward verb

Ritjikn. building
A straightforward noun, can refer to a building or anything that has been built

Sasivv. evade, twist
A straightforward verb in both senses

Senilv. minify
A straightforward verb, often used idiomatically as downplay

Sindv. hurry, rush
A straightforward verb

Surocv. establish, found, base, settle
A straightforward verb

Surocitjilevaknprop. the solar system in which Brelix is located
A straightforward proper noun

Teranprop. Earth
A straightforward noun

Tintv. relax, be at ease
A straightforward verb

Tjekv. agree, intj. I agree
A straightforward verb, it can also be used as a colloquial “I agree.” It does not mean the same thing as “yes” nor does it always imply that the speaker agrees with an argument, but it indicates an agreement to at least put aside differences and move on with a particular task. It may more closely resemble “Okay.”

Tjelcardnum. 20012 (28810)
A straightforward numeral

Thian. sun, day (daytime)
A straightforward noun

Thiancaadv. today
A straightforward adverb, refers to calendar days

Thornixiclobeln. solar system
A straightforward noun

Verennprop. Veren
A planet in a neighboring solar system whose inhabitants are in a military stalemate with the Borelians

Vocalv. invent
A straightforward verb

Vocaradj. new
The etymology of this word is speculative at best, likely related to the verb vocal, but what is known is that it refers to something coming into being that was not there before, versus something new replacing something old.

Volithpron. everywhere
A straightforward pronoun

Voluxadj. superior, n. Borelian attitude of superiority over all other races in the universe
Straightforward adjective and noun

Vomatjikn. universe, creation
A straightforward noun used by theists who believe the universe was created

Wilv. to be amused
This is an unusual verb because it naturally occurs as a passive verb without the passive infix. The reason for this is unknown, though it is speculated that it has to do with something causing one to be amused versus being amusing. The subject and object follow standard rules for passive verbs.

It is grammatically possible to use the passive infix with this organically passive verb. The subject and object, however, follow rules for normal verbs. The result is something that would be considered insulting.

O wawilumur o.
He amuses me (and everyone has a good time)

O wawinlurm o.
He amuses me (and he's a moron)

When used with the causative prefix “re,” there is no change in the meaning of the regular state and is, in fact, quite redundant. When the causative and the passive are used together, there is another reversal of roles.

O warewinlurm o
He causes me to be amusing.

Wilkn. grass, grassy plant
A straightforward noun

Wilosn. amusement
A straightforward noun from an irregular verb

Idioms and Sayings

Tint ja sind – stop and go, hurry up and wait
O in ladik rumavib in xol evi tint ja sind o.
Our progress in the war is stop and go.

Et in tanik onta tint ja sind et.
That trial was hurry up and wait.
 

Ovi – exaggerate
O in zik umvib ixovimit o! Darowo ti din thoja!
He is exaggerating his victory! It is never simple!

Et in intik ak ruvib woviminit et.
Writings of my death were habitually exaggerated.
 

Obido – pull yourself together
Nol obidoxel!
Pull yourself together!
 

Senil – downplay
O in zik umvar ixisenilumit e tan um resurdoxez o!
She is downplaying her bravery, but she is courageous!

Do in kordik inca nol senilit o!
Do not downplay this crime!

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