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Borelian Verbs: Prefixes

Grammar 1, Dwi

This month we have the introduction of the prefix “dwi-” (or just “dw-” before a vowel). This prefix attaches to a noun and forces it to become a verb.

Understand, however, that this phenomenon is considered very awkward, even if grammatically correct, since most Borelix grammar and lexicon is based around a root verb with derived nouns, not the other way around.

Therefore, even if “dwostilos” may be grammatically correct, forcing the noun auction to become the verb auction, it would be preferable to instead take the longer route and say “liw ostilos vib” sell at (lit. out of) an auction.

Otherwise, forced verbs act just like regular verbs.

Grammar 2, Prefixes

We already covered the Circumfixes for Time. Now we're going to discuss Prefixes for Nuance. This is what really gives a verb flavor. Prefixes must come in a certain order, even if not all spaces are used.

The prefix breakdown looks something like this:

Observation

Conditional

Speculation

Intent

Ability

Repetition

Relativity

Completeness


 

Observation refers to the speaker's knowledge of an event, whether first-hand (I know), second-hand (I heard), common knowledge (It was reported, or it is said), or idle gossip (Did you hear?).

First-hand knowledge is indicated with “row-”

Second-hand knowledge uses “ori-”

Common knowledge uses “tet-”

Idle gossip is referenced with “vidi-”

Conditional refers to the “if” factor and broad postulation.

If is rendered using “bol-”

Whether is marked with “vel-” on both verbs

To render “whether...or not,” use regular negation in the premiere prefix position, not the temporal circumfix.

Either is indicated using “mil-” on both verbs

To render “neither,” use regular negation and “mil-” on both verbs.

Speculation is a grammatical entity that in English would be rendered as “could/would/should.”

Could is indicated using “sak-”

Would is marked with “is-”

Should is referenced with “el-”

Intent indicates the intent of the subject and covers “want,” “willing,” and “must” as well as emphasis. Reduplication can be used with “want” or “must” to produce greater emphasis.

Want is marked with “dil-”

Willing is marked with “cul-”

Must is indicated using “xu-”

Emphatic is expressed with “amin-”

Ability refers to the ability of the subject to do a thing and is the construction for “can” and “need.”

Able/Can is rendered using “this-”

Need is expressed by “don-”

Repetition is the aspect which tells how many times the action has been done. It is marked not by a particular affix, but a number itself, up to ten (base 12). If a number greater than ten is desired, most often for hyperbolic purposes, the number ten may be used with the emphatic intent “amin-” or the term “infinite” or hyperbolic “gazillion” may be used.

Relativity indicates the relation of the particular action with other actions around it.

If the action before described happens before other events, the prefix is “mid-”

If the action being described happens after other described events, the appropriate prefix is “ua-” for consonant-initial verbs, and “uak-” for vowel-initial.

Completeness indicates whether the event is finished, unfinished, or habitual.

An action that is completed takes “ko-” for consonant-intial verbs, and just “k-” for vowel-initial.

Unfinished, or ongoing, actions use “ix-” for vowel-initial verbs, and “ixi-” for consonant-initial.

Habitual actions are marked with either “w-” or “wa-”

All affixes are subject to the rules of lenition.

Again, not all slots need to be filled, and there are special cases which we will discuss later. Simple examples might look something like this (Pronouns for Suffix filled in for grammatical correctness):

O dildesam o dil (want) + desa (teach) + m (s/he)

She wants to teach

This is a very simple example and can be applied to a number of situations.

Et bolthisixirivithaz et bol (if) + this (able) + ixi (incom.) + rivith (persuade) + az (you)

If you were unable to persuade...

Normally there would be a lot more going on in the sentence, but for this clause, it is correct.

More sentences:

O Selith zulak ixintimit o.

Selith is writing a book.

O Ridik zulak warunamitil o.

Ridik reads books.

Et in zulak kotazularit et.

I have read the book five times.

O orixiniwixivum o.

He heard that you are dancing tonight.

We'll go over some of the more complicated aspects of Prefixes at a later date, but this should give you a good introduction to them to help familiarize yourself with them.

Words

Akiln. happiness, pleasure

Fairly straightforward, referring to pleasing things.

 

Akilaradj. happy, pleasing

There is a difference between someone being happy, and someone being pleasing. One is reflective on the person, the other is perception by others. In order to indicate reflection on someone, the associated verb is in the active. If it is a perception by others, the verb will be in the passive.

 

Aran – v. hide, adv. now, right now, immediately

As a verb, it's fairly straightforward. As an adverb, the implication is that it is something that is happening, or should happen, right now, at this very present moment.

 

Arminv. conceal

It's unclear which verb developed first, aran or armin. It is suspected that armin may be somehow related to the passive -amin- infix, suggesting it was once a different verb and naturally passive. Or it could just be a regional thing, as armin is more often found in the area around Ancrath. Regardless, they are typically pretty interchangeable. Armin may be preferred to aran if aran would otherwise be used as both a verb and adverb in the same clause.

 

Bintn. short sword

While it can be used in a general sense, the bint is also a type of sword used in ceremonies, most notably higher promotion ceremonies. The colloquial term for the ceremonial sword is bintura, referring to a bone talisman affixed to the hilt for decoration.

 

Bralaradj. Borelian

This is Borelian in its adjectival form. So, for example, if you wanted to talk about Borelian food, Borelian weapons, Borelan language, and so forth, this is it.

 

Cov. remember

A straightforward verb

 

Cosn. memory

This is memory in the general sense, such as “His memory is going.”

 

Cosjan. memory

This is a specific memory, such as “I have no memory of this place.”

 

Dinadj. Simple, not complicated

A straightforward adjective.

While not listed in the dictionary, there is also the colloquial dinja (using the -ja partitive) that essentially means that it is so simple, so easy, it's a little embarrassing that you have to ask how easy or difficult it is.

 

Diwn. iron

A straightforward noun

 

Diwaradj. iron

A straightforward adjective

 

Ediwadj. strong

A straightforward adjective, comes from diw, iron.

 

Elsikn. dream

A straightforward noun

 

Elson. flower, v. sleep, dream

An elso is a type of flowering vine that grows on Brelix near the water. Pronounced differently, it can also mean sleep or dream, both straightforward verbs.

 

Embv. butcher, cut up meat

A straightforward verb, describing the process of butchering an animal and parting out the carcass, not typically used in a barbaric sense

 

Intv. consider

Usually referring to giving something serious thought, but can be used for more humanitarian senses

 

Intos – n. consideration, a session or meeting of government

The first sense is the logical progression of the int verb to its noun.

The second sense is a meeting of a governing body, saying that the council is in session, or literally, “in consideration” of whatever issues they have to consider.

 

Iskiliturintj. Please (lit. “it would please me”)

A polite phrase to use.

There may be variations based on the object (-urm or -urb for us for example).

Note that if you are expanding on this (“please go to the store”) then it should be treated as a full grammatical entity, so you should take the rest of the phrase as an extension of such “it would please me if you would do this” or “it would please me to go to the store” etc.

 

Jembn. butcher

A straightforward noun.

 

Kasv. cry, shed tears, v. a type of duel

The first is a straightforward verb.

The second is straightforward in its meaning, but less so in its grammar. A kas duel is typically only called among the higher authorities in the military in order to settle disputes. It may or may not be lethal, depending on the situation. It is unclear why it is used as a verb, an exclusively so. Speakers have to bend over backwards to use it in other senses in a sentence.

 

Kaskn. tear (from the eye)

A straightforward noun.

 

Kasosn. the winner of a kas duel

Again, the meaning is fairly straightforward, the grammar less so. It is unclear how the meaning came to be, when one might typically expect this to be the noun state of the kas verb.

 

Kilv. please

A fairly straightforward verb.

 

Lacaradj. wild, natural

Fairly straightforward, describing something in its natural state.

 

Lacik – n. target

Another straightforward noun

 

Lacinn. wilderness, v. target, lock onto

This word is believed to have originally had a “g” sound when referring to the wilderness, and it is still spoken as such today by some people, including in its related adjective lacar.

 

Lithurdin. Store, shop

A straightforward noun, a place to buy things.

To expand on this idea, simply add the product after the noun. For example, lithurdi ribel would be a sandwich store. Lithurdi ethron would be a spaceship dealership. Lithurdi unok might refer to a brothel. Lithurdi almuk, an art gallery. Lithurdi zulak, a bookstore. Lithurdi rutuv, a fruit stand. And so on.

 

Liwv. sell

A straightforward verb

 

Luxn. general, military rank, post. on top of, over, above

Lux is the highest rank of Borelian ground forces and a lux may oversee military operations for an entire planet or group of planets, depending. So it's not hard to see where it might be derived from its homophonic postposition which covers the gambit of the idea of on thing being over something else.

 

Recov. remind

A straightforward verb, literally, “cause to remember”

 

Recoxelv. memorize

A straightforward verb, literally, “cause oneself to remember”

 

Ribelv. watch, observe, guard, n. sandwich

Another straightforward verb. Its relation to the sandwich is unknown, except perhaps that sandwiches are quick and easy to make and seem to be the preferred lunch for those on duty.

 

Skilturintj. Please (colloquial)

An informal but still polite phrase to use.

There may be variations based on the object (-urm or -urb for us for example).

This informal variant of iskilitur is not typically used with expanding arguments, but as a standalone phrase.

 

Thalinv. speak, say, v. follow, pursue

The difference between thalin and vedi is that vedi implies a conversation where people take turns speaking, where thalin is more broad in its sense that someone is speaking. This would also be the appropriate verb for saying that one speaks a particular language.

 

When pronounced differently and used as follow or pursue, it is meant literally, such as following someone down the road, tracking an animal, and so on.

 

Thalosn. saying, idiom, gossip (slang)

A straightforward noun, comes with bonus slang.

 

Torv. rip, tear, n. spike, thorn

While fairly straightforward, there is a little literary nuance in the verb that this refers to cuts that are not so clean, that may involve less pretty ripping of flesh than xiv which is cut or slice, suggesting a more clean cut.

 

Urdiv. buy

A straightforward verb.

 

Venadv. now, at the moment

Similar to aran, but with a little less urgency, describing something current but not necessarily immediate

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