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Borelian Verbs: Suffixes

Grammar, Suffixes for Person

Borelian verbs attach personal pronouns for both subject and object.  The subject is who is doing a thing.  The object, if applicable, is who is receiving a thing.  A few rules will be noted:

  1. Pronouns always attach as subject first and then object.

  2. Personal suffixes are not necessary in instances where the subject is a noun or proper noun and there is no object or other verbs.

  3. When using suffixes, the corresponding independent pronouns may also be used for greater emphasis.

  4. “Self” cannot be a subject, although it may attach to an independent pronoun for emphasis.

  5. Borelian uses an ergative/absolutive system of pronouns when using the passive infix. This will be explained more under “The Passive Voice.”

  6. When using the Observation prefix “ori-” if there is a discrepancy between the observer and the subject (most often caused by emphasis of a non-present third-party), the observer's prefix comes last and the main clause is treated as the regular subject/object. For example, “He heard that you are dating me.” would see “you” as the subject, “me” as the object, and “he” would be a tangential third pronoun. Alternatively, you can use the verb “u” (hear) as a separate, literal rendering.

    1. First-hand prefix “row-” should have no discrepancy as the subject is implying first-hand knowledge

    2. Common knowledge prefix “tet-” and idle gossip prefix “vidi-” require no associated pronouns as the origin of the knowledge is implied or unknown.

Don't worry if it sounds complicated.  Practice makes better.  But just in case, here is the table of the personal suffixes.

 

Singular

Plural Exclusive

Plural (Inclusive)

1st Person

I

-(u)r

We (not you)

-(u)rb

We (and you)

-(u)rm

2nd Person Intimate

You

-(i)v

You

-(a)vib

You All

-(a)miv

2nd Person Casual

You

-(i)m

 

 

You All

-(a)m

2nd Person Formal

You

-(a)z

 

 

You All

-(a)nz/-(a)niz

3rd Person Mutual

He/She

-(u)m

You

-(a)mib

They

-(u)min

3rd Person Other

It

-(i)t

 

 

They

-(i)til

Non-Specific/Reflexive

One

-(i)je

They

-(a)jub

Self

(xel)

The suffixes do not change for subject and object; suffix order determines their role.

So this effectively concludes verbs, with exception of the passive verb, which will be covered probably next month.  Therefore, between the blog post guides and the dictionary, you should be able to effectively dissect the following sentences.

O Isthim isculthiskalix o?
Would Isthim be willing and able to fight?

This implies an immediate need to have Isthim fight. It would be perfectly acceptable to use the future tense in this instance. Also, the use of the completed action prefix implies that she is requested only for a single fight rather than an ongoing campaign.

Oth uamathimurm in xol midkozirmit oth.
We will celebrate after we win the war.

Notice that both verbs fall within the General Future because both events occur in the future. The relativity prefixes indicate the temporal relation between the separate events.

Et in surdalixoljezik midkozirbit uamathimurb et.
After we had won the war, we celebrated.

Both events happened in the past, but the position of the clauses and relative markers indicate which event happened first within that time frame.

Deldilketurmum ruma alib et
We should not have wanted a brother.

Because this is a non-specific verb, the personal pronouns attach to the verb directly in front of the subject, rendering the duplicate subject pronoun unnecessary. In such instances, the suffix takes priority over the independent pronoun.

Disdilkothuminit umni zulak oth.
They wouldn't want a book.

This implies a singular, accepted future instance of giving a book. Using the unfinished prefix would imply a degree of uncertainty. It would also be acceptable to use the present tense and the habitual to say “They wouldn't want books” in a general sense, or combine the future with the unfinished or habitual to form unique circumstances of not wanting books.

Doth Morjak xua thoja!
Morjak must never die!

Det bolmidkalixurmur de sakthisuakozirm et.
I knew that if we hadn't fought, we couldn't have won.

The ability prefix is not absolutely necessary, but it emphasizes the point. Adding a “before” relative prefix would also extend the temporal length of “fought.” (Moving from “If we hadn't fought in that particular battle, we couldn't have won” to “If we hadn't fought in battles prior to this one, we couldn't have won.”)

Oth in jolin milmidkermum baosik mut milkoriclom oth!
Either we are going to see the doctor first, or you are going home!

While the “mid” prefix is not necessary for the sentence to be correct, it implies that these people have future plans that are dependent on seeing the doctor first. If this condition is not fulfilled, then the second action (going home) comes into play and does not take a relative prefix.

O ixemetur dorowvelkomedim o!
I'm going whether you like it or not!

Remember that a “whether...or not” places the negation on the verb, not the clause as a whole. The use of “row” suggests that the speaker, I, know you don't like that I'm going. The use of “ko” is open to interpretation, but may suggest that this dislike is fixed and cannot be swayed. Also, while English uses the filler “it” to reference the going, it is not necessary here.

O in ik Tujor teteldilmidixiricriminum rodi ak bodiliminit o.
It is said that the priests of Tujor should always want to be seeking him if they want to understand death.

Despite the use of the passive in English, this is an active Borelian verb.

Q: When will an official grammar/language guide be available?
A: Ah, when I get it done.  Maybe next month there will be a preliminary one available.

Vocabulary and Grammar

aothinv. stop
A straightforward verb, although it requires the reflexive xel if there is no object.

bajv. whisper
A straightforward verb

brankv. be surrounded
A straightforward verb, naturally passive. The “deconstructed active” form is believed to derive from a North Borlex word meaning “circle” or something similar.

burov. look around, glance, gloss over
A straightforward verb having the general meaning of not going into too much detail

carthazv. maneuver (move in small, deliberate increments)
A straightforward verb

carthemn. maneuver, step (in a series or process)
A straightforward noun

cumadv. as, like, in the manner of
A simple yet multi-talented particle, often linked with nouns, but may appear with adjectives as well. In colloquial speech and writing, it is often directly attached as -um.

Nol zith kinilik cum!
Flee like a coward!

O ixivoxum jemunro cum o.
She lies like a traitor.

Et koniwixum Bralum et.
He danced in Borelian style (in the manner of Borelians).

O ru rathad lacarum o.
I am naturally fast (I am fast in the natural way [this is how nature made me].)

Ma Morjak jedoca ediw de dijik umtamsi jekodim koram ninev koviz cum thoja.
Morjak was a strong commander who was never afraid to kill his enemies in a manner of great cruelty.

Notice that the phrase comes after the verb, as it is neither subject nor object.

dathojaroditin. infinite, heavens, beyond what is seen, the unknown, etc.
A straightforward noun in use, but can be difficult to describe. Used by theists and atheists to refer to the wonders and mysteries of the universe. There is some philosophical debate over whether the “da” comes from “d-” relative that, or “da” none.

dathojaroditijan. knowledge of the universe, opening of the mind
A straightforward noun in use, but difficult to describe. It is often used in conjunction with ricri and i, so it may be inferred that dathojaroditija is the goal of ricri, some vision or knowledge of the universe beyond sight and scientific instrument.

dixusrakn. imagination
A straightforward noun, its apparent use of the incomplete prefix is fascinating and suggests that the imagination is always at work

dureln. telepathic communication
A straightforward noun

dusnakjan. calculator
Anything that does mathematical functions, from basic pocket calculators to larger machines

erazithikadj. stubborn
A straightforward adjective, related to arazith, suggesting something that does not retreat as a maneuvering tactic, but stands firm no matter the cost

eticn. thing, thingamajig, whatchamacallit, whosawhatsit
Etic differs from matjik in that it is more carefree in nature, having no specific thing in mind. To that end, it is also unable to take demonstrative adjectives (this/that)

joreln. leader
A straightforward noun

kalinv. demonstrate, give an example
A straightforward verb

kalosn. demonstration, example
A straightforward noun

kalosjaintj. “for example…”
Fairly straightforward usage, may be abbreviated as “kj.”
(not yet in dictionary)

karnav. negotiate
A straightforward verb, anything from peace treaties to bargaining at the market

karnakn. term (of a negotiation), offer
A straightforward noun, though “offer” is fairly narrow in its scope and is only to be used referring to the current offer of an ongoing negotiation

karnosn. negotiation
A straightforward noun

karthazv. condemn to death, send to a death camp
A straightforward verb

karthemn. death camp
A straightforward noun

kurelizn. musical instrument
A straightforward noun, literally, “played”

kusrazadj. imaginary
A straightforward adjective

laminpost. together with
This indicates doing something with someone else, or in addition to. It does not convey how something is done, such as writing with a pencil.

larikn. ignition, combustion
A straightforward noun

larinv. ignite, set on fire, cook
A straightforward verb

nacilv. try, attempt
A straightforward verb

naclesn. attempt
A straightforward noun

nutelv. certify, authenticate
A straightforward verb

nutlaradj. authentic
A straightforward adjective

nutlesn. certification, authentication
A straightforward noun

orelv. lead
A straightforward verb, very broad in scope, could mean leading anything from a cow to a kindergarten line to an attack

renacilv. motivate
A straightforward verb

renaclesn. motivation
A straightforward noun

rimkobrankn. island
A straightforward noun, literally “surrounded by water”

tetjizpostp. behind
A straightforward postposition

tjijv. jip, shortchange, renig, etc.
A somewhat straightforward verb, though not a very nice one. This could mean anything from saying someone didn't give you the correct change, did not deliver on goods and merchandise, stood you up on a date or an outing, or any number of unpleasant, minor annoyances.

tjitjuv. hush, shush, intj. Hush! Shush! Be quiet!
A straightforward verb and easy-to-use and -say phrase.

thojaroditiadj. infinite, adv. forever
Fairly straightforward. Also used in “repetition” for verbs as a hyperbolic.

thojaroditinacilv. persist
A straightforward verb

thojaroditinaclaradj. persistent
A straightforward adjective

thojaroditinaclesn. persistence
A straightforward noun

urelv. communicate telepathically
Borelians have limited telepathic capabilities. It is not sophisticated enough for word-for-word conversations, but it is useful for impressing images and feelings onto others

ureliv, play an instrument
A straightforward verb. It is entirely possible that urel and ureli are related, given the nature of good music to evoke feelings and impressions on the mind and body

usnav. compute, do a math function
A straightforward verb, encompassing everything from simple addition to calculus and beyond

usnakn. computation, calculation
A straightforward noun, often refers to the process of mathematics (when the teacher says to show your work line by line), but may be used to refer to the answer when dealing with simpler problems

usrav. imagine, pretend
A straightforward verb

vintaimn. promotion
A straightforward noun

vintiv. be promoted
A straightforward verb, naturally passive, no known deconstructed active. This refers to attaining rank and has no bearing on marketing

vintikn. rank, hierarchical status
A straightforward noun

vintiluxv. override by authority
A straightforward verb, naturally active despite its root, used to invoke one's rank (versus knowledge or experience, etc.) when giving an order

welinv. coast, drift
A straightforward verb

wolimn. peninsula
A straightforward noun, literally “three water”

xav. gasp, intj. Ah! Gasp! Etc.
A straightforward verb with accompanying interjection

xacilv. defend
A straightforward verb

xacinlv. be protected
A straightforward verb, naturally passive

*On xacil and xacinl

The Borelians believe that protection and defense are two different concepts, as noted by the verb forms. Defense is an action by the subject, whereas protection is more passive and requires no action by the thing being protected. Therefore, one may defend something with a gun while being protected by a wall or armor. The gun requires action on the part of the subject to be useful, where the wall or armor requires no special action to be useful.

Changes

Vocalik → Vocles

n. invention

For Fun

If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you. (Michigan state motto)
O in wolim kamusiz bolisdiluakixizothimit nol burom o.

(Slightly more condensed:)

O in wolim kamusiz boldilixizothimit nol burom o.

The reason the -m suffix is used instead of -xel is because -xel would implying looking about one's body versus looking around outside of oneself.

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