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The Timekeeper Chronicles

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Simple Negation

Negation is fairly straightforward, though it has its quirks. For a standard negation, simply change the first circumfix particle of the verb by adding “d-” or “da-” if a consonant. For example.

O Morjak in ik o.
Morjak is the priest.

Do Morjak in ik o.
Morjak is not the priest.

When dealing with negative nouns (no one, nothing, etc.) the particles are a separate grammatical entity and follow all standard rules.

O dảnthi jedoca o.
No one is a commander.

Do dảnthi jedoca o.
No one is not a commander.
 

Note that because “dảnthi/no one” is classified as a pronoun, it does not take “in.”

More complex negation is made by indicating a negative statement in the first circumfix particle and changing the second particle to the appropriate adverb.

O Isthim ezik o.
Isthim is victorious.

Do Isthim ezik o.
Isthim is not victorious.

Do Isthim ezik thoja.
Isthim is never victorious (Isthim is not ever victorious).
 

To make this a double negative, add the negating particle to the adverb. Note that while this not considered proper grammar (you won't find “dathoja” in a dictionary), it is not an uncommon construction in colloquial speech.

Do Isthim ezik dảthoja.
Isthim is never not victorious (Isthim is not ever not victorious).
 

This can get even more interesting when you throw in a negative pronoun.

Do dảnthi ezik dảthoja.
No one is never not victorious.
No one is not ever not victorious.
No one is victorious. / One is not victorious.

The construction remains the same, even if the accompanying adverb is a positive one.

O Isthim ezik rodi.
Isthim is always victorious.

Do Isthim ezik rodi.
Isthim is not always victorious.

By now, you should have a decent bundle of model sentences to play with.  The next few posts will be vocabulary and such.  Somewhere in there should be the first real dictionary.

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